Travel Series: Africa

This post was written by Tiffany Kajer Wright, research services assistant.

In the fourth installation of our blog series in conjunction with the Around the World in (Almost) 80 Days exhibit, we’re examining historical travel in Africa. At Special Collections Research Center, our Archives and Rare Books can bring the past to life and inspire future travel plans. Whether going on safari or seeking to understand other cultures and religions, travelling to Africa has been regarded with excitement and shrouded with mystery. From the Sahara to South Africa, travelers have recorded their thoughts, drawn maps, and photographed their way across the continent.

Always considered an exotic and wild place, Africa has captured the attention of Western cartographers and geographers going back to the Roman Empire. In the early 1700s, Herman Moll sought out the most well-traveled people of his time and constructed a book of maps and descriptions of lands and peoples. He called his compilation The Compleat Geographer. To the best of his ability, he included every bit of the known world, and Africa was no exception.

Moll, Herman, The Compleat Geographer, G114 .C74 1709, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

The Sahara is the largest hot desert in the world stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea, and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Sahel. Travel is traditionally done by camel, and Bryon Khun de Prorok did exactly that in 1920. He and his entourage ventured into the desert, and he wrote about their adventures in Mysterious Sahara. Throughout the book are plates of his journey, including a stop at the Oasis of Nefta in Tunisia.

Khun de Prorok, Bryon, Mysterious Sahara, DT333 .K4, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

Dr. John Paden, a Clarence Robinson Professor of International Studies, donated his papers and books upon retiring. He conducted academic research in Nigeria during the 1960s, and has extensive materials from that time. Among the books and papers, he also donated a musical instrument called a yomkwo and several Qur’an (Koran) boards. These are boards used to help students memorize verses from the holy book, as well as practice their handwriting.

John N. Paden, Collection C0194, Box 132, Qur’an/Koran board, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

John N. Paden, Collection C0194, Box 132, Qur’an/Koran board, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The word “safari” comes from the Swahili for “journey” or “expedition,” and was likely adapted from the Arabic “safar,” meaning “to travel.” If one goes on safari, one goes to Africa to do so. Edith McChesney Ker did, and later donated slides of her photographs from Africa and around the world. Her collection spans from the 1950s to the early 2000s and is about 10,000 slides. She demonstrated an obvious preference for wildlife and nature shots on her global travels, including the wildlife of Kenya and Tanzania.

Edith McChesney Ker, Collection C0077, Box 28, Page 21, Slide 1, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

In February 2016, Atlas Obscura posted a story about the honeyguide – an unassuming bird that led hunters to bees’ nests practically upon request in Tanzania. Over the summer, the story gained ground as other news outlets ran similarly-themed pieces. However, this bird’s behavior was recorded as far back as 1881! Near the village of Kavimba, in the country now called Botswana, Dr. David Livingstone encountered this amazing bird in his travels during the mid-1800s. J.E. Chambliss compiled this tale and many more of the doctor’s expeditions – alone and with Henry Stanley – in The Lives and Travels of Livingstone and Stanley.

Chambliss, J. E., The Lives and Travels of Livingstone and Stanley, DT1030 .C44 1881, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

Follow SCRC on Social Media and look out for future posts on our FacebookInstagram, and Twitter accounts. To search the collections held at Special Collections Research Center, go to our website and browse the finding aids by subject or title. You may also e-mail us at speccoll@gmu.edu or call 703-993-2220 if you would like to schedule an appointment, request materials, or if you have questions. Appointments are not necessary to request and view collections.

Travel Series: Europe and Asia

This post was written by Tiffany Kajer Wright, research services assistant.

In the third installation of our blog series in conjunction with the Around the World in (Almost) 80 Days exhibit, we’re taking a look at travel in Asia and Europe. At the Special Collections Research Center, our collection of Rare Books and archival materials can take you to the far reaches of the globe, real or imagined. From France and Hungary to Tibet, India, China or Japan, travelers throughout history have collected stories told by others or written about their own journeys. The items below include images, a collection of fairy tales, and primary sources written by travelers or compiled afterward.

Imagine your country building a defensive wall so strong that experts said nothing could get through. Now, imagine depending on it to stop an invasion… but the enemy simply goes around it. The Maginot Line was the primary French defense against Germany during World War II. It was built in the 1930s for the express purpose of stopping a German invasion. The Maginot Line did exactly that – until the Germans figured out that they could simply go around through Belgium. The haunting image shows the forts a few years after the war ended.

France-Maginot Forts, 1948. Christine Drennon European Lantern Slides, Collection C0068, Box 2, Folder 13, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

The Csoda Album is an utterly fascinating work. Each illustration is more beautiful than the last, with gilding and brilliant colors like gemstones spilled across the page. Some of the artwork in this Hungarian book of fairy tales was first printed in the Andersen Kalender. Further, the illustrators, Heinrich Lefler and Joseph Urban, were lauded Austrian artists and designers. In fact, Urban went on to design many exemplary Art Nouveau and Art Deco buildings, such as Mar-a-Lago and the Ziegfeld Theater among others.

Inside cover of Csoda Album. Szini, Gyula, Csoda Album, GR154.5 .S95, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

One of the most contentious figures in history purportedly traveled to China in the 1200s. His writings opened European eyes to the culture of Asia, particularly the areas along the Silk Road. Whether you believe Marco Polo actually visited the Far East or simply wrote what he heard from travelers, his tales of exotic lands and foreign peoples still make for fascinating stories. Centuries later, we’re still talking about his work and the influence it has had on what Europeans believed about Eastern cultures throughout history.

Reproduced map of Eastern Asia from 1300s. Yule, Henry, Polo, Marco, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, G370.P735 1875 v.1, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

Have you ever wondered what it would be like to wander the deserts, mountains, and steppes in Central Asia? You can read about how one French man did exactly that in the 1840s with no GPS or accurate maps – just locals who traveled with him as guides. The regions discussed by Evariste Regis Huc include modern-day China, Mongolia, and Tibet. His Recollections of a Journey through Tartary, Tibet, and China discuss his experiences living in a tent, herding camels, the climates he experiences, and of course, the food.

H.I. Harding traveled through the Himalayas from Srinagar, India to Kashgar, China in the early 1900s. He did this with the aid of guides recommended to him by another traveler in the area. The areas he passed through were – and continue to be – contested territory. Although Harding had a solid streak of romanticism and poetry in his writing, the regional political realities he discusses provide historical context for some of today’s conflicts.

Kashgar cloth cover (according to the author) or Fold-out map at the back. Harding, H.I., Diary of a Jouney from Sringar to Kashgar via Gilgit, DS 485.K2 H27x, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

It is perhaps the most recognizable mountain around the world, due to its unchanging beauty throughout the four seasons. Mount Fuji rises more than 12,000 feet and can easily be seen from Tokyo on clear days. Considered an active volcano, it draws more than 200,000 hikers to its peak every year. For some, viewing the sunrise from the summit is a spiritual practice in accordance with Shinto beliefs. For others, climbing this picturesque peak is simply a breathtaking experience. Images can be found within our Kjell Sandved collection, which includes many other breathtaking images from around the world.

All of these materials are open to patrons. Follow SCRC on Social Media and look out for future posts in our Travel Series on our FacebookInstagram, and Twitter accounts.  To search the collections held at Special Collections Research Center, go to our website and browse the finding aids by subject or title. You may also e-mail us at speccoll@gmu.edu or call 703-993-2220 if you would like to schedule an appointment, request materials, or if you have questions. Appointments are not necessary to request and view collections.

Around the World in (Almost) Eighty Days

Summer is approaching and travel plans have been made! Special Collections Research Center holds many images and books that represent great travel destinations in the United States and around the world. That is why we have planned a new exhibit – “Around the World in (Almost) Eighty Days: Traveling the Globe with Special Collections” to show off these wonderful pieces and maybe even help those who are still trying to figure out where to travel in the upcoming months. The exhibit will run from June 5 until mid-August and a reception will be held in Fenwick Library on June 15 from 3 to 4:30 p.m. Hope to see you there – Bon Voyage!

New Rare Books in the Spotlight

Example of four flap enclosures for rare books and pamphlets.

For a brief period Wednesday, normal activity came to a halt in the Special Collections Research Center. Our fabulous Cataloging & Metadata Librarian, Friedgard Cowan, brought down a cart packed with recently cataloged rare books from Technical Services. When a rare book is donated or acquired, it is first cataloged in Technical Services, so that it will be accessible to researchers through our online Catalog. After it’s cataloged, the rare books are brought to the Research Services Coordinator in the Special Collections Research Center, so that we may assess any preservation needs it may have before shelving it in the stacks. Books in more fragile condition require an enclosure, like a phase box or four flap folder, before being able to be shelf-ready. Once it is determined that the book is “shelf-ready,” it is shelved in our closed stacks–ready to be pulled for the researchers who need it!

Seeing the “new to us” rare books is always exciting. So here, making their Special Collections Research Center debut:

First, an addition to our Decorated Bindings Collection! Elizabethan Songs “In Honour of Love and Beautie” Collected and Illustrated by Edmund H. Garrett, published in 1891.

Elizabethan Songs “In Honour of Love and Beautie” Collected and Illustrated by Edmund H. Garrett, published in 1891, PR 1207 .G3 1891

Elizabethan Songs “In Honour of Love and Beautie” Collected and Illustrated by Edmund H. Garrett, published in 1891, PR 1207 .G3 1891

In fact, music seems to be the theme of these recently cataloged books. From 1935, we have a first edition vocal score, “Songs from Top Hat,” with words and music by Irving Berlin. Songs included in this piano-vocal score include classics like, “Cheek to Cheek,” “Top Hat, White Tie and Tails,” and “No Strings (I’m Fancy Free).”

Songs from “Top Hat”, Lyrics and Music by Irving Berlin, published 1935, M 1508 .B465 T66 1935

Finally, an early musical manuscript: plainsong!

Can you see the grotesque face in the initial below?

Vellum Manuscript Leaf from a Choir Book in Latin, produced in the late 15th/early 16th century in Italy, M2147 XVI .M4

Special Collections Research Center’s Manuscripts and Archives Librarian, Liz Beckman, admiring the vellum manuscript leaf: Vellum Manuscript Leaf from a Choir Book in Latin, produced in the late 15th/early 16th century in Italy, M2147 XVI .M4

You can find these items and many more in our rare books collection. To search the rare books collection for interesting items from our collection, search the Mason Catalog, click on “Set Limit” and limit by the location “Fenwick Special Collections.”

E-mail us at speccoll@gmu.edu or call 703-993-2220 if you would like to schedule an appointment, request materials, or if you have any questions. Appointments are not necessary to view collections.

Constructing Preservation Enclosures: Double Tray Book Boxes

Constructed in the clamshell style, book boxes built like those described below completely enclose the volumes housed inside of them, providing support and protection to items with fragile or damaged bindings or covers. Custom cut individually to fit each specific item, these enclosures consists of three basic parts: a lower tray, an upper tray, and an outer case and are made of the same (acid free pH neutral) materials as bookbindings themselves. The example shown was made with archival quality binder’s board, polyvinyl acetate (PVA) adhesive, endsheet paper, and buckram following specifications laid out by the Library of Congress.

Boxes for the Protection of Books: A revised & updated version of the previous 1981 volume, Boxes for the Protection of Rare Books: Their Design and Construction by Lage Carlson, Margaret R. Brown, Library of Congress Preservation Directorate.

(Unfamiliar words?  http://cool.conservation-us.org/don/ Many conservation and preservation terms are defined here.)

Completed clamshell book box

Clamshell enclosures can be constructed as follows:

  1. MEASURE THE BOOK
  2. FILL OUT WORKSHEETS
    1. BOARDS
    2. COVERING MATERIALS
    3. LINING MATERIALS
  3. CUT MATERIALS
    1. BOARDS FOR TRAYS AND CASE
    2. COVERING MATERIALS
    3. LINING MATERIALS
  4. ASSEMBLE THE BOX
    1. BUILD TRAYS
    2. COVER TRAYS
    3. COVER CASE
    4. ATTACH TRAYS TO CASE
    5. ATTACH SPINE LINING
    6. ATTACH TRAY LINING

To properly protect the book, it must be snugly fit into its clamshell. To do so, the creator must measure with precision, taking into account the thickness of the boards, cloth, and lining paper.

Library of Congress worksheets

Once all of the boards have been cut to size, the case boards will be put together much like a typical book binding to wrap around the whole thing, and trays will be assembled with butt joints using PVA. One tray should fit into the other with a bit of wiggle room to accommodate the coverings yet to be applied. The book to be housed should fit into the smaller tray with a lesser amount of open space.

Measurements:

Length = head-to-tail                                                     Board = wall, base, and case; single or double thickness

Width = spine-to-fore edge                                        Covering = cloth, buckram, etc

Height = spine thickness                                                               Lining = end sheet, Japanese tissue, etc

A = 2 thicknesses of board + 8 thicknesses of covering material

B = 1 thickness of board + 4 thicknesses of covering material

C = 2 thicknesses of lining material + 4 thicknesses of covering material

D = 2 thicknesses of board + 8 thicknesses of covering material

E = 1 thickness of board + 4 thicknesses of covering material

F = 1 thickness of board + 4 thicknesses of covering material

G = 1/16 of an inch for a fore edge lip

H = 1 thickness of board

Making the trays:

Clamshell trays constructed of binder’s board using butt joints and PVA adhesive.

Covering the trays:

Covering the tray, interior view.

Covering the tray, exterior view.

Covering the tray, completed exterior.

Once you’ve constructed and covered your trays, take a moment to ensure that the book fits into the smaller tray and that the smaller tray fits into the larger tray, then move on to the case.

Making the case:

clamshell-case.jpg

Case and spine boards, ready to assemble.

Covering the case:

clamshell-case-covered.jpg

Clamshell case, covered.

Assembling the clamshell at this point is a matter of attaching the trays to the case and lining the trays and spine. Once completed, you’ll have an enclosure that will support fragile bindings and protect delicate covers.

Side view, completed clamshell.

For more information, webinars and events related to Preservation Week, go to ala.org/alcts/preservationweek.