Travel Series: Europe and Asia

This post was written by Tiffany Kajer Wright, research services assistant.

In the third installation of our blog series in conjunction with the Around the World in (Almost) 80 Days exhibit, we’re taking a look at travel in Asia and Europe. At the Special Collections Research Center, our collection of Rare Books and archival materials can take you to the far reaches of the globe, real or imagined. From France and Hungary to Tibet, India, China or Japan, travelers throughout history have collected stories told by others or written about their own journeys. The items below include images, a collection of fairy tales, and primary sources written by travelers or compiled afterward.

Imagine your country building a defensive wall so strong that experts said nothing could get through. Now, imagine depending on it to stop an invasion… but the enemy simply goes around it. The Maginot Line was the primary French defense against Germany during World War II. It was built in the 1930s for the express purpose of stopping a German invasion. The Maginot Line did exactly that – until the Germans figured out that they could simply go around through Belgium. The haunting image shows the forts a few years after the war ended.

France-Maginot Forts, 1948. Christine Drennon European Lantern Slides, Collection C0068, Box 2, Folder 13, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

The Csoda Album is an utterly fascinating work. Each illustration is more beautiful than the last, with gilding and brilliant colors like gemstones spilled across the page. Some of the artwork in this Hungarian book of fairy tales was first printed in the Andersen Kalender. Further, the illustrators, Heinrich Lefler and Joseph Urban, were lauded Austrian artists and designers. In fact, Urban went on to design many exemplary Art Nouveau and Art Deco buildings, such as Mar-a-Lago and the Ziegfeld Theater among others.

Inside cover of Csoda Album. Szini, Gyula, Csoda Album, GR154.5 .S95, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

One of the most contentious figures in history purportedly traveled to China in the 1200s. His writings opened European eyes to the culture of Asia, particularly the areas along the Silk Road. Whether you believe Marco Polo actually visited the Far East or simply wrote what he heard from travelers, his tales of exotic lands and foreign peoples still make for fascinating stories. Centuries later, we’re still talking about his work and the influence it has had on what Europeans believed about Eastern cultures throughout history.

Reproduced map of Eastern Asia from 1300s. Yule, Henry, Polo, Marco, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, G370.P735 1875 v.1, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

Have you ever wondered what it would be like to wander the deserts, mountains, and steppes in Central Asia? You can read about how one French man did exactly that in the 1840s with no GPS or accurate maps – just locals who traveled with him as guides. The regions discussed by Evariste Regis Huc include modern-day China, Mongolia, and Tibet. His Recollections of a Journey through Tartary, Tibet, and China discuss his experiences living in a tent, herding camels, the climates he experiences, and of course, the food.

H.I. Harding traveled through the Himalayas from Srinagar, India to Kashgar, China in the early 1900s. He did this with the aid of guides recommended to him by another traveler in the area. The areas he passed through were – and continue to be – contested territory. Although Harding had a solid streak of romanticism and poetry in his writing, the regional political realities he discusses provide historical context for some of today’s conflicts.

Kashgar cloth cover (according to the author) or Fold-out map at the back. Harding, H.I., Diary of a Jouney from Sringar to Kashgar via Gilgit, DS 485.K2 H27x, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

It is perhaps the most recognizable mountain around the world, due to its unchanging beauty throughout the four seasons. Mount Fuji rises more than 12,000 feet and can easily be seen from Tokyo on clear days. Considered an active volcano, it draws more than 200,000 hikers to its peak every year. For some, viewing the sunrise from the summit is a spiritual practice in accordance with Shinto beliefs. For others, climbing this picturesque peak is simply a breathtaking experience. Images can be found within our Kjell Sandved collection, which includes many other breathtaking images from around the world.

All of these materials are open to patrons. Follow SCRC on Social Media and look out for future posts in our Travel Series on our FacebookInstagram, and Twitter accounts.  To search the collections held at Special Collections Research Center, go to our website and browse the finding aids by subject or title. You may also e-mail us at speccoll@gmu.edu or call 703-993-2220 if you would like to schedule an appointment, request materials, or if you have questions. Appointments are not necessary to request and view collections.

Around the World in (Almost) Eighty Days

Summer is approaching and travel plans have been made! Special Collections Research Center holds many images and books that represent great travel destinations in the United States and around the world. That is why we have planned a new exhibit – “Around the World in (Almost) Eighty Days: Traveling the Globe with Special Collections” to show off these wonderful pieces and maybe even help those who are still trying to figure out where to travel in the upcoming months. The exhibit will run from June 5 until mid-August and a reception will be held in Fenwick Library on June 15 from 3 to 4:30 p.m. Hope to see you there – Bon Voyage!

Marking the Hours

Music

Music for celebrating the Divine Office from the Directoriuvm Chori: Ad Vsvm Omnivm Ecclesiavm Cathedralium & CollegiatarumRare Books Collection, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University Libraries, M2153.2 .C36 1665

Sunday, November 27th marks the beginning of Advent in the Western Christian tradition. The season of Advent starts the fourth Sunday before Christmas and is preparation for the celebration of Jesus’ birth on Christmas Day. It also marks the beginning of the liturgical year in the Catholic Church.

In the Special Collections Research Center, we have some examples that allow us to see the ways in which people historically celebrated the Christian liturgical year.

Vellum Leaf from a Missal printed in 1493

Vellum Leaf from a Missal printed in 1493, Rare Books Collection, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University Libraries, BX2015 .A2 1493

In medieval Christian Europe, public worship and the liturgical year revolved around the Mass or the Divine Office.

The Mass can be defined as the rituals, hymns, and readings that evolved around the celebration of the Eucharist.

In contrast, the Divine Office is a set of prayers recited at specific hours of the day. The Divine Office is primarily composed of the biblical Psalms with supplemental hymns and readings. In the Middle Ages, singing the Divine Office was the responsibility of monks and nuns. According to John Cassian (d. 435), “The whole purpose of the monk and indeed the perfection of his heart amount to this–total and uninterrupted dedication to prayer.”(1)

The medieval Divine Office was composed of eight “Offices” or “hours.”

In the Middle Ages, each of these forms of worship (Mass & Divine Office) was celebrated using a different type of book:

  • Lectionary: used by priests, it contains the Scriptural readings for use in Mass
  • Breviary: used by monks, the Breviary was a service book containing the texts necessary to celebrate the Divine Office
  • Missal: used by priests, the missal is a service book containing texts (prayers and instructions) necessary for the performance of the Mass.
  • Gradual: used by priests, it contains the musical portions of the Mass, and omits the spoken parts
  • Antiphoner: used by monks, this book would have been large enough for a monastic choir to see it, and contains sung portions of the Divine Office.

One can see how the emergence of the printing press began to change these medieval books with one of the volumes from our Rare Books collection, the Directorivm chori : ad vsvm omnivm ecclesiarvm cathedralium & collegiatarumThe Directorivm Chori is the first post-Tridentine chant book published in Rome, and it contains the basic elements for singing the Divine Office, including the principal Psalms, hymns, verses, lessons and prayers. Unlike medieval antiphoners, however, the Directorivm Chori is small, meant to be held and viewed by one person–not an entire choir.

To search the rare books collection for more interesting items from our collection, search the Mason Catalog, click on “Set Limit” and limit by the location “Fenwick Special Collections.”

  1. John Cassian, Conferences. Trans. Colm Luibheid. (New York: Paulist Press, 1985) 101

 


E-mail us at speccoll@gmu.edu or call 703-993-2220 if you would like to schedule an appointment, request materials, or if you have any questions. Appointments are not necessary to view collections.

U.K. National Map Reading Week

This year, the U.K. has established a National Map Reading Week, run by the Ordnance Survey, to encourage people to use and understand the importance of maps. Special Collections Research Center here at George Mason University also recognizes this importance and decided that we would feature just some of the wonderful maps we have in our collections.

 

Map of China. Japanese invasion of Manchuria photograph collection # C0200, Box 1, Folder 14. Special Collections Research Center. George Mason University.

Map of China lantern slide, Japanese invasion of Manchuria photograph collection #C0200, Box 1, Folder 14, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

 

Battle of Antietam. Charles Harrison Mann Collection # C0213, Folder 69, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University Libraries.

Battle of Antietam, Charles Harrison Mann Collection #C0213, Folder 69, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University Libraries.

 

The New World Reproduction of map from 1600. Charles Harrison Mann Collection # C0213, Folder 89, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University Libraries.

The New World Reproduction of map from 1600, Charles Harrison Mann Collection #C0213, Folder 89, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University Libraries.

 

Moll, Herman, Atlas Minor , G1015 .M6 1745, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

Moll, Herman, Atlas Minor, G1015 .M6 1745, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

 

Sanson, Nicolas, Atlas Antiquus, Sacer, Ecclesiasticus et Profanus, G1033 .A85 1705, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

Sanson, Nicolas, Atlas Antiquus, Sacer, Ecclesiasticus et Profanus, G1033 .A85 1705, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.

 

Map of Austria Romana with military maneuvers. Christine Drennon European lantern slide collection # C0068, Box 1, Folder 15. Special Collections Research Center. George Mason University.

Map of Austria Romana with military maneuvers lantern slide, Christine Drennon European lantern slide collection #C0068, Box 1, Folder 15, Special Collections Research Center, George Mason University.


To search the collections held at Special Collections Research Center, go to our website and browse the finding aids by subject or title. You may also e-mail us at speccoll@gmu.edu or call 703-993-2220 if you would like to schedule an appointment, request materials, or if you have questions. Appointments are not necessary to view collections.